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Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS) refers to a family of surgical procedures intended to alter the basic structures of a male face in order to bring it's appearance more in line with those of the average female. This family consists of techniques derived from both general plastic and reconstructive surgeries as well as maxillofacial procedures. The surgeries now known as FFS were originally pioneered in their current form by Douglas Ousterhout in the U.S.A during the 1990's. Facial hair removal is usally seen as a separate procedure, not included as past of FFS.
It does have it's limitations though, as surgical correction can only achieve so much. It also carries with it all the usual surgical risk as well as being quite expensive.
Here's a list of the more common procedures used as part of FFS. It is by no means exhaustive, but covers all the major procedures. Not all of them are required to have FFS, but a combo of some of them is usual.
Female eyebrows are usually positioned higher on the face than on the male face. In this procedure the brows are lifted to a more classically female location.
Rhinoplasty is the reshaping of the nose cartilage intended to alter the overall appearance of the nose. This can include reducing the length, width and thickness of the nose.
Cheek implants are often used to give a more feminine appearance to the cheeks. Female cheekbones are generally fuller and have a more forward projection and this surgery aims to emulate that.
Lip Lift & Fills
Lip Lifts and Fills are often done in combination in order to improve the feminine appearance of the lips. In a lip lift, a small incision is made under the nose, a small section of skin removed and the incision is closed, reducing the distance between the nose and the lip, giving a more typically female appearance. Fillers can then be used to give fuller lips also.
This procedure is intended to reshape the Forehead in order to give it a more typically female shape. Generally, in this procedure, a combination of grinding and filling is used to remove the brow ridge that is found on the male forehead, just above the eyes.
This procedure is intended to reshape the chin in order to give it a more typically female shape. The chin is reshaped by either bone shaving, removing larger sections of bone or both. This has the effect of reducing the height of the chin, as well as rounding out the corners
This procedure is intended to reshape the jaw in order to give it a more typically female shape. The jaw bone is reshaped by either bone shaving, removing larger sections of bone or both. This has the effect of narrowing the appearance of the jaw, as well as rounding out the corners